References

References for Home Page

1 Bird, K.T. and Benson, P.H. Eds, Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources:  Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, Vol 16,  Gerard, V.A., “Optimizing Biomass”, Elsevier, Netherlands, 1987, pages 95-106, p 97.

2 Ross, A.B, J.M. Jones, M.L. Kubacki, and T. Bridgeman, 2008. Classification of macroalgae as fuel and its thermochemical behavior, Bioresource Technology 99, 6494-6504, p 6497.

3North, Wheeler J., ed. The Biology of Giant Kelp Beds (Macrocystis) in California, Verlag Von J. Cramer, publishers, Lehre, Germany 1971, page189.

4 Ross, 2008, page 6494.

5Jackson, George A and North, Wheeler J. “Concerning the Selection of Seaweeds suitable for Mass Cultivation in a Number of Large, Open Ocean, Solar Energy Facilities (“Marine Farms”) in Order to Provide a Source of Organic Matter for Conversion to Food, Synthetic Fuels, and Electrical Energy.  W.M Keck Engineering Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Final Report Under Contract Number N60530-73-MV176, Issued by the U.S. Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA,  October 15, 1973, p56 gives yield of 4.8 kg/m2y, dry but not ash-free.

6Wilcox, Howard A., “Prospects & Problems in regard to Farming the Open Oceans”, 1 Mar 1980, Invited Paper, proc 58th International Conference on Alternative Energy and the Offer of the Sun and the Sea, Milan, Italy on April 18-20, 1980, page 570.  Figure 6 gives volatile solid fraction of 59%.

Reference for Kelp-to-BioCrude

1 Elliott DC, TR Hart, GG Neuenschwander, LJ Rotness, Jr, G Roesijadi, AH Zacher, and JK Magnuson. 2014. “Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors.” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2(2):207-215.  doi:10.1021/sc400251p

References for Background

1Wilcox, Howard A., “Prospects & Problems in regard to Farming the Open Oceans”, 1 Mar 1980, Invited Paper, proc 58th International Conference on Alternative Energy and the Offer of the Sun and the Sea, Milan, Italy on April 18-20, 1980.

2 For an overview of the ocean farm research, see Roesijadi, G., A.E. Copping, M.H. Huesemann, J. Forster, and J.R. Benemann, Techno-Economic Feasibility Analysis of Offshore Seaweed Farming for Bioenergy and Biobased Products, Independent Research and Development Report, IR Number PNWD-3931, Battelle Pacific Northwest Division, March 31, 2008.

3United States Naval Undersea Center, Ocean Food and Energy Farm Project, Final Report prepared for the Energy Research and Development Administration, Division of Solar Energy, Under Interagency Agreement No. E(49-26)-1027, San Diego CA

Subtasks One and Two
North, Wheeler J and Staff, “Biological Studies of M. pyrifera Growth in Upwelled Oceanic Water, California Institute of Technology, WM Keck Engineering Laboratories, Pasadena, CA 91109, November 1976.

Subtask Three:
Kirchhoff, R.H.,” Dispersion and Sinking Studies for Oceanic Upwelling, a Three Part Report”, February 1976.

Subtask Four, Volume 1:  James, A.L, and Murphy, D.W, “Kelp Support Substrate Structures for Use in the OFEF Project”, Ocean Technology Department, Ocean System Division, Naval Undersea Center, Hawaii Laboratory, September 1976.

Subtask Four, Volume 2:  Hoffman, R.T., Strickland, A.T., and Harvey, P.J., “Artificial Upwelling in Support of the OFEF Project”, Ocean Technology Department, Ocean System Division, Naval Undersea Center, Hawaii Laboratory, September 1976.

Subtask Five
Seligman, Peter F., “Site Survey Studies”, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, Division of Solar Energy, Naval Undersea Center.

Subtask Six, Volume 1:  Budhraja, Vikram S, B. Nicholas Anderson, George A. Hoffman, Frank J. Nickels, Ronald H. Schneider, and David H. Walsh, “Overall Economic Analysis of the Base Line Design”, Integrated Sciences Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, July 1976.

Subtask Six, Volume 2:  Budhraja, Vikram S., “Cultivation Subsystem, Integrated Sciences Corporation, Santa Monica, CA  July 1976.

Subtask Six, Volume 3:  Nickels, Frank J., “The Harvesting Subsystem”, Integrated Sciences Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, July 1976.

Subtask Six, Volume 4:  Hoffman, George A. and Vikram Budhraja, “Processing Subsystem”, Integrated Sciences Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, July 1976.

Subtask Six, Volume 5:  Budhraja, Vikram S., “Support Subsystem, Integrated Sciences Corporation, Santa Monica, CA  July 1976.

Subtask Six, Volume 6: Anderson, B. Nicholas, “Mariculture Subsystem, Integrated Sciences Corporation, Santa Monica, CA  July 1976.

Subtask Six, Volume 7:  Walsh, David H. and Ronald H. Schneider, “Appendix, Integrated Sciences Corporation, Santa Monica, CA  July 1976.